ECOLOGY AND ENERGY PRODUCTION

ECOLOGY AND ENERGY PRODUCTION

Monday, July 16, 2018



Army wants to build massive FIVE MILE seawall in New York harbor to prevent another Hurricane Sandy

  • The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers has made six proposals to protect the harbor 
  • The first involves building a storm barrier from Sandy Hook to Breezy Point 
  • That five-mile long barrier would be supplemented by two levee systems
  • It has been estimated that a harbor-wide barrier could cost up to $25 billion
The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers has proposed building a five-mile long seawall to protect New York and New Jersey from the effects of another Hurricane Sandy.
Sandy killed more than 200 people and inflicted more than $70 billion worth of damage when it struck the Caribbean, the United States and Canada in 2012.
More than five years on, U.S. government agencies are still discussing ideas to protect New York's harbor and surrounding areas from the next devastating storm.
At meetings in New York and New Jersey earlier this week, the Army Corps presented six proposals for storm and flood protection as part of a $19million study, NJ.com reports.
The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers has proposed building a five-mile long seawall to protect New York and New Jersey from the effects of another Hurricane Sandy. Pictured, a concept image of the barrier
The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers has proposed building a five-mile long seawall to protect New York and New Jersey from the effects of another Hurricane Sandy. Pictured, a concept image of the barrier
3D animation shows designs for seawall to stop next Hurricane Sandy
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Many of the plans would see surge barriers spanning large waterways or measures along the shoreline, such as seawalls or levees.
The first proposal is to build a five-mile long storm barrier along the entrance to New York's harbor – from Sandy Hook in New Jersey, to Breezy Point in Queens.
That barrier would be supplemented by a levee and berm system from Sandy Hook to Long Branch and another from Breezy Point to Far Rockaway.
A smaller levee system would also be built at Throgs Neck, between The Bronx and Queens, where the Long Island Sound meets the East River.
The Army Corps haven't estimated how much the seawall could cost, however, in June 2013, the New York City Economic Development Corporation said a harbor-wide barrier could cost up to $25 billion.
Such systems have been used in low-lying areas before, including New Orleans and New Bedford in Massachusetts.
The second proposal (pictured) would focus on smaller storm barriers  in the inner harbor
The second proposal (pictured) would focus on smaller storm barriers  in the inner harbor
A second proposal would ditch the massive outer harbour seawall in favor of smaller storm barriers in the inner harbour.
It would keep the Throgs Neck system, but barriers would also be built on the Arthur Kill between Perth Amboy and Staten Island; Jamaica Bay between Brooklyn and Queens; the Narrows between Staten Island and Brooklyn, just behind the Verrazano-Narrows bridge; and Pelham Bay in The Bronx.
A third proposal would also focus of smaller inner harbor barriers and levees.
Storm barriers and levees would be built for the Arthur Kill, Jamaica Bay and Pelham Bay.
The third proposal would see six small storm barriers and plenty of levees built to protect the harbor
The third proposal would see six small storm barriers and plenty of levees built to protect the harbor
The fourth proposal focuses on the densely populated waterways, specifically the New York side of the Hudson River
The fourth proposal focuses on the densely populated waterways, specifically the New York side of the Hudson River
It would also see small barriers and levees built on the Kill Van Kull between Bayonne and Staten Island, on Brooklyn's Gowanus Canal and on Newtown Creek between Queens and Brooklyn.
The fourth proposal focuses on the densely populated waterways, specifically the New York side of the Hudson River.
In New Jersey, a barrier and levee system would be built on the Hackensack River and the shoreline in Jersey City would be strengthened.
But in New York, this proposal would see barriers and levees at Jamaica Bay, Gowanus Canal Newtown Creek and Pelham Bay.
The shoreline along the west side of Manattan would also be reinforced.
The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers proposals are aimed to protect New York and New Jersey from the effects of another Hurricane Sandy. Pictured, a destroyed home in Mantoloking, New Jersey, one of the hardest hit areas 
The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers proposals are aimed to protect New York and New Jersey from the effects of another Hurricane Sandy. Pictured, a destroyed home in Mantoloking, New Jersey, one of the hardest hit areas 
The Jersey shore took the brunt of Hurricane Sandy's devastation.Pictured, a home that was knocked off its foundation in Mantoloking, New Jersey, in 2012
The Jersey shore took the brunt of Hurricane Sandy's devastation.Pictured, a home that was knocked off its foundation in Mantoloking, New Jersey, in 2012
The fifth proposal advocates for no barriers, but would instead focus on building stronger shorelines.
It also details a flood prevention perimeter to be building around Moonachie, New Jersey, and other low-lying regions in the vicinity.
A sixth proposal is to do nothing and leave New York Harbor as it is.
The proposals were outlined in a bid to prevent the devastation from future storms – a threat that has increased by sea levels rising due to climate change and putting almost 16 million people at risk across New York and New Jersey.
The Army Corps estimated the water around Manhattan's Battery Park will rise between one and seven feet over the next hundred years.
Sandy devastated New Jersey, killing 40 people in the state, and leaving around 50,000 people homeless.

Monday, July 9, 2018






 
 The Tesla Memorial Society of New York
Tesla Tower in Shoreham Long Island (1901 - 1917) meant to be the "World Wireless" Broadcasting system
Above: The Famous Tesla Tower erected in Shoreham, Long Island, New York was 187 feet high, the spherical top was 68 feet in diameter.  The Tower, which was to be used by Nikola Tesla is his "World Wireless" was never finished.




Nikola Tesla and Albert Einstein, Part Three: Keys to the Universe


It’s virtually impossible to fathom how far off the course of “betterment of humanity” we have been driven by the power status quo (PSQ) and its central banks. People, we’ve landed in a ditch called by the PSQ, “arrested human development”. Perhaps more than any human ever born, Nikola Tesla could have steered us back on course with the Wheelwork of Nature (WON).
Nikola Tesla said, “Science is but a perversion of itself unless it has as its ultimate goal the betterment of humanity.” Too bad he is not driving—but wait, he actually is, in terms of the entire system of alternating current (AC) electricity that currently drives civilization, for starters, the list is long. So many contributions capitalized on by the PSQ came straight from the incredible mind of Tesla. But when he  threatened the very foundations of power giving the PSQ utter domination of humanity, Tesla was and still is probably the most lied about person of all time. Eric Dollard says about 99% of mainstream information about Tesla is “worthless”.
Instead of betterment of humanity Tesla offered, several generations of scientists have been wasted on trying to prove Einstein right. Tesla framed it perfectly:
Today’s scientists have substituted mathematics for experiments, and they wander off through equation after equation, and eventually build a structure which has no relation to reality.”
Reality was Tesla’s observatory playground; natural phenomena, nature’s intricacies whirling up ways in his immense consciousness to improve the human condition; ultimate contrast to PSQ-controlled science. Perhaps the twenty-three trillion dollars “missing” at the Pentagon adequately characterizes who…or, what is driving.
This quote from Eric Dollard goes right to the hand holding the keys to humanity’s road trip through time:
Tesla scared the central bankers senseless. They knew what his plan meant. Energy independence meant an almost complete loss of control of the people.”
All wars are bankster wars.
The Tesla Coils
There really are two of them, both patented by Tesla. Here we’ll call surely the greatest invention—certainly the greatest potential for freeing humanity of  PSQ tyranny—the Tesla Coil. The other…perhaps we should call that other, popularized one, the Lodge Coil…alternating current (AC) SUPER SPARK!! generator with virtually no applications other than, as Wikipedia tells us:
“…an electrical resonant transformer circuit designed by inventor Nikola Tesla in 1891. It is used to produce high-voltage, low-current, high frequency alternating-current electricity.” And, “Today, their main use is for entertainment and educational displays, although small coils are still used as leak detectors for high vacuum systems.” The difference between the Tesla Coil, and the Lodge Coil could not be more extreme. Consider the difference between “…entertainment and educational displays….” and the Tesla Coil offering us the keys to the universe.
As Tesla said: “Of all the frictional resistances, the one that most retards human movement is ignorance, what Buddha called, ‘the greatest evil in the world’.” There is no greater pusher of ignorance than the PSQ—and no greater example than Nikola Tesla. Why would you have to say to almost everyone you ask about Tesla: No, he’s not a car?
As we ponder the Tesla Coil as a peerless breakthrough for humanity/peerless threat to the PSQ, please keep in mind Wikipedia’s “…low current, high frequency alternating-current (AC) electricity.” And consider Tesla’s seminal quote: “Science is but a perversion of itself unless it has as its ultimate goal the betterment of humanity.” It was actually Sir Oliver Lodge who perfected the Lodge Coil.
After his discovery of Radiant Electricity in 1889, Tesla discovered a new force using violently abrupt DC discharges. In 1892, Tesla presented his paper: “The Dissipation of Electricity”.
Well, most academicians of the day apparently misunderstood the magic in Tesla’s paper. Premier scientists including Sir Oliver Lodge thought, by Tesla referring to “high frequency”, that AC was involved in operation of the Tesla Coil. An enormous blunder by scientists the PSQ capitalizes in perpetuity…or at least until enough people learn the truth.
Tesla completely abandoned everything AC (a certain albatross around his neck the PSQ plays to the hilt) for the rest of his life, after his Tesla Coil put in his hands the WON, aether.
Tesla was now working in a new domain of physics based on DC discharges of electrostatic forces and the resulting release of kinetic radiant electricity from that king of forbidden technologies, capture and control of omnipresent aether.
Tesla’s explanations of his development of the Tesla Coil, behavior of aether at increasing “frequency” and shorter durations of the staccato discharges are so clear and compelling it has taken much PSQ suppression, diversion and disinformation to keep so many people perpetually blind of such a technological leap for the “betterment” of humanity.
The PSQ banned him from history books, textbooks, even from the Smithsonian.
On The Road to Wardenclyffe: Colorado Springs Station
Tesla went to Colorado Springs in mid-May 1899 with the intent to research:
Transmitters of great power
Individualization and isolating the energy transmission means
Conditions of propagation of currents through the earth and the atmosphere
Tesla believed it might be possible to transmit power without wires where the air was thinner, and thus, more conductive.
A friend, patent lawyer Leonard E. Curtis found land for Tesla’s station, and offered free power from the El Paso Power Company of Colorado Springs. Colonel John Jacob Astor provided funding, and Tesla’s research station was a go.
Tesla’s station sported a 142-foot metal mast topped with a large copper ball, and a roof that rolled back so as not to catch fire. Inside, a very large Tesla Coil provided the magic, the WON; a huge magnifying transmitter provided reach.
Back in 1893, at a meeting of the National Electric Light Association, Tesla said it was “…practical to disturb, by means of powerful machines, the electrostatic conditions of the earth, and thus transmit intelligible signals, and, perhaps, power”.
Tesla measured most everything, and found during the Colorado station’s shocking electrical displays, that the earth was “…alive with electrical vibrations”. Tesla believed lightning ground strikes, because the earth was a giant conductor, (as Tesla said, like a charged metal ball) induced powerful waves that traversed the entire planet.
Tesla produced his own “lightning bolts”, bigger and bigger—until he burned out the windings of the power station generators. The El Paso Power Company said they would give him no more power. No problem, Tesla had learned all he needed for his ultimate gift to humanity, Wardenclyffe.
Think about wars for oil and gas disguised as humanitarian interventions. Millions of innocent people slaughtered, millions of refugees. All the soldiers coming home in body bags to fill flag-draped coffins, or maimed for life physically, mentally, or both and largely treated by the PSQ as spent cannon fodder. Think about our power grid vulnerability to electromagnetic pulses (EMP) from solar mass ejections…or the more popularly-terrorizing, nuclear bomb detonation at the right altitude. The list of things Wardenclyffe was the key to transcending as elegantly as everything perfected in Tesla’s mind is unfathomable. And that’s how the PSQ gets away with calling Wardenclyffe, “Tesla’s million dollar folly”. For the PSQ it was pedal to the metal to blast into the public mind what Buddha called “the greatest evil in the world”, ignorance.
Most people that have any awareness at all regarding Wardenclyffe, have been hoodwinked into thinking the 187-foot tower with the copper dome was meant to, somehow blast electricity through the air, a long ways. Precisely the opposite of Wardenclyffe’s function.
The Wardenclyffe tower was a receiver of aether powered by a giant Tesla Coil. An enormous Magnifying Transmitter fed the antenna Beneath the tower. Reaching to a depth of 120 feet, it was a huge 1/4-wave antenna effectively fifty-miles long, shaped like a Christmas tree tuned to transmit the true electricity (WON) through the ground to any place on earth at the earth’s resonant frequency, 7.83 hertz. A simple tuned receiver stuck in the ground could replace all the wires of our power grid with many more such towers circling the globe. That’s it.
Conclusion
Tesla said, regarding Power, PSQ style: “No free energy device will ever be allowed to reach the market”.
And he said, “Invention is the most important product of man’s creative brain. The ultimate purpose is the complete mastery of mind over the material world, the harnessing of human nature to human needs”.
Congress had a better idea with their “Invention Secrecy Act”, deciding in 1951 that in this “nation of ideas”, certain ideas must be kept hidden.
Via Freedom of Information Act requests, such as the Federation of American Scientists have revealed that the number of secrecy orders has been increasing in recent years. By 2012, more than 5,300 patent applications had been tagged for the nebulous protection of national security, many of them decades old.
The Pentagon, Department of Justice, National Security Agency, Department of Homeland Security—such are where final decisions are made regarding the tens of thousands of patent applications manually examined every year under the Invention Secrecy Act. Tesla sure knew that no “free energy” device would ever be allowed to endanger the (PSQ). The fossil fuel kaleidoscope, and nuclear power were their cash cows. Even Einstein, darling of the PSQ, said that “Nuclear power is one hell of a way to boil water”. He sure got the hell part right.
So what would happen if we opened and utilized the present Nikola Tesla gave to humanity? No more power grid, or the stupendous profits involved; no more terrorizing humanity with possibility of an EMP sending us back to the “stone age”. No more full-spectrum destruction of our future via burning of fossil fuels (all the way to Canadian tar (bitumen) and the hideous “dilbit” pipelines of doom). Consider coal, and its mercury fingerprints touching even the most formerly pristine places on earth. No more wars for oil. No more nuclear reactor meltdowns like currently killing the Pacific ocean (Fukushima). The list is long, deadly, and completely avoidable—not counting the horrendous damage already wrought upon our tiny life bubble in a hostile universe. Mainstream media is like a horribly polluted and fermenting river of lies screaming at anyone intelligent and aware and actually thinking freely that freedom of energy is the PSQ’s worst nightmare. Triumph of ALL things Tesla would be humanity’s sweetest dream.
The river of lies does still have clear and unpolluted tributaries of truth about Tesla. Difficult to find, but they still flow. Find them before they are damned by the PSQ, and, dammed.
With Tesla on our side, we could have WON long enough ago to have an enlightening future, instead of the…well, just look and learn enough about Nikola Tesla. Help spread truth. There’s no better future for humanity than what he envisioned, and put within reach—a hostile, inhuman, bloody Satanic century ago.
In Tesla’s own words:
Let the future tell the truth, and evaluate each one according to his work and accomplishments. The present is theirs; the future for which I have really worked for, is mine.”
Above: Wardenclyffe Tower, Tesla's Idea about electrical control of rain falls.

Above: Tesla's Idea how to light up the ocean with high frequency electricity being transmitted through the Ionosphere.
Above: Photograph of a model of Tesla Tower in action, shows how the Tower would have looked if it was completed.

Above: The tragedy of Tesla in Wardenclyffe, the tower was dismantled on July 4, 1917.  It was dynamited and razed by the mortgage holder, the proprietor of the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel.
A Visit to Tesla Tower (June 10, 1990)
Tesla Memorial Society of New York and The Nikola Tesla Committee organized a visit to the Tesla Tower in Shoreham, Long Island on June 10, 1990.  The famous Tesla Tower, so called Wardenclyffe Tower, was erected by Nikola Tesla on 1901 -1903 as the first broadcasting system in the world, and transmitting electrical energy without wires to the globe using the Ionosphere (the electrified upper part of the atmosphere of the earth important for transmitting radio waves around the globe).  Under the solar radiation, molecoles of the upper atmosphere are being constantly transmitted into ions.
The visit to the Tesla Tower was done with the intention to express our views that the Tesla Tower foundation be designed as a national historical site.  There are several Tesla Societies in Long Island today which are formed with the intention to build a Tesla Science Museum in Shoreham, Long Island.  Tesla's laboratory was designed by the famous American architect and Tesla's friend, Stanford White.  The laboratory is still standing in good condition.  In front of Tesla's laboratory, there is a foundation of Tesla's Wardenclyffe Tower which was an enormous structure underground connecting the Tower with the Atlantic Ocean.  J.P. Morgan, the richest and most powerful man of that time, was a financier of the Tesla Broadcasting system.  The Tower was designed as a world communications center and Nikola Tesla added to the project in that the tower would also be used for transmitting electrical energy without wires to the entire globe.  Tesla wanted to saturate the globe with electricity as a dynamo so that everyone on the surface of the globe could obtain electrical light just by sticking wires into the soil and a electrical bulb would light.  When J.P. Morgan heard about the Tesla project, he was asked: "How can we get money from the electricity which Tesla is supplying to every part of the world?"  After that Morgan cut the funds and the Tower was never finished.
Tesla wanted to bring electricity from the huge resources at Niagara Falls Power Plant and disperse it all around the globe.  What a magnificent project it was, however it was never finished.  The concept of telephone and telegraph communications, developed by Tesla on Long Island, is still the foundation of today's rapidly growing development of international and intercontinental wireless communications.
The visit to Tesla Tower on June 10, 1990 was so successful that 10 United States  Congressmen and one Senator spoke in the American Congress about Nikola Tesla.  American Congresswomen Hon. Helen Delich Bentley had a beautiful speech about Nikola Tesla in the US Congress on July 10th 1990, celebrating the 134th birthday of Nikola Tesla.
Photos at the Ceremony at Wardenclyffe (Tesla Tower)
United States Governor's Proclamations, Proclaiming in their States July 10th, "Nikola Tesla Day"
Congressman's Speech 1 (July 11, 1990, Chairman of the Science, Space and Technology Committee)
Congressman's Speech 2 (July 11, 1990, Congresswoman Helen Delich Bentley)
US Congressional Records
July 1990
Honoring the 134th birthday of Nikola Tesla, US Congressmen's speeches:
Hon. Congresswoman Helen Delich Bentley ( Page 1 )
Hon. Robert A. Roe of New Jersey ( Page 1 )
Hon. Leon E. Panetta Dem. of California ( Page 1 | Page 2 )
Hon. George W. Gekas of Pennsylvania ( Page 1 )
Hon. George J. Hochbrueckner of New York ( Page 1 )
Senator Levin from Michigan  ( Page 1 | Page 2 )
Hon. Eliot L. Engel of New York ( Page 1 )
Hon. Joel Hefley of Colorado, June 29, 1989 ( Page 1 | Page 2 )
United States Senator Mark O. Hatfield, June 21, 1984 ( Page 1 )














































 

 

Enlarge the pdf file to 150% to make it readable. Deathbed confessions and photos enclosed, read it in depth to the end and this will explain all the wrong things happening and why our country is in peril.

 

 

 

The optical fibre made of THIN AIR: Technology could provide communications to anywhere on Earth - and in space

  • Air waveguide could be used to improve light signals from distant sources
  • Guide is a ‘wall’ of low-density air surrounding a core of higher density air
  • It works like an optical fibre, guiding beams of light over long distance
  • This could improve laser communications and help detect pollution in air
  • Technology could also be used to communicate with colonies on Mars


Imagine being able to run an optical fibre to any point on Earth or in space.

 
That is what one physicist says could be possible in the future, opening up the possibility of communicating with colonies of people on Mars via a kind of broadband, for example.
Professor Howard Milchberg believes that an ‘air waveguide’ could enhance light signals collected from distant sources, making long-distance communication possible as never before.


Physicists at the University of Maryland have found a way to make air behave like an optical fibre, which could guide light beams over long distances without losing power
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Physicists at the University of Maryland have found a way to make air behave like an optical fibre, which could guide light beams over long distances without losing power
The professor of physics at the University of Maryland believes waveguides could have many applications, including long-range laser communications, detecting pollution in the atmosphere, making high-resolution topographic maps and even laser weapons. As light loses intensity with distance, the range over which such tasks can be done is limited.
Even lasers, which produce highly directed beams, lose focus due to their natural spreading or due to interactions with gases in the air.
This is an illustration of an air waveguide. The filaments leave 'holes' in the air (red rods) that reflect light. Light (arrows) passing between these holes stays focused and intense
This is an illustration of an air waveguide. The filaments leave 'holes' in the air (red rods) that reflect light. Light (arrows) passing between these holes stays focused and intense
HOW WAS THE 'AIRWAVE GUIDE' CREATED?
The air waveguides were made using very short, powerful laser pulses.
A laser pulse transforms into a narrow beam called a filament, which happens because the laser light increases the refractive index of the air in the centre of the beam, as if the pulse is carrying its own lens with it.
The refractive index, also called index of refraction, measures of the bending of a ray of light when passing from one medium into another.
Professor Milchberg has previously shown that the filaments heat up the air as they pass through, causing it to expand and leave a ‘hole’ of low-density air in their wake.
This hole has a lower refractive index than the air around it and while the filament itself lasts for just one trillionth of a second, it takes a billion times longer for the hole to appear.
The physicists have previously showed that four filaments were fired in a square arrangement, produce holes forming the low-density wall needed for a waveguide.
The ‘pipe’ produced by the filaments lasted a few milliseconds, a million times longer than the laser pulse.
Because the waveguides are relatively long-lived, he believes a single guide could be used to send out a laser can collect a signal.
But fibre optic cables trap light beams and guides them like a pipe, preventing loss of intensity or focus.
They typically consist of a transparent glass core surrounded by a cladding material with a lower index of refraction. When light tries to leave the core, it gets reflected back inward.
Solid optical fibers can only handle so much power, and they need physical support that may not be available where the cables need to go, such as the upper atmosphere.
To solve these problems, Professor Milchberg and his team have found a way to make air behave like an optical fibre, which could guide beams of light over long distances without loss of power, according to the study in the journal Optica.
The air waveguides consist of a ‘wall’ of low-density air surrounding a core of higher density air.  
Just like a conventional optical fibre, the wall has a lower refractive index than the core, guiding light along a ‘pipe’.
The physicists broke down the air with a laser to create a spark and used the air waveguide to conduct light from the spark to a detector a three feet (1 metre) away.
The signal was strong enough so that they could analyse the chemical composition of the air that produced the spark.
In fact, the signal was one-and-a-half times stronger than a signal obtained without the waveguide.  
While this may not seem a lot, over distances that are 100 times longer - where an unguided signal would be severely weakened - the signal enhancement could be much greater, the scientists explained.
The air waveguides were made using very short, powerful laser pulses.
Just like a conventional optical fibre (pictured), the wall has a lower refractive index than the core, guiding light along a 'pipe'
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Just like a conventional optical fibre (pictured), the wall has a lower refractive index than the core, guiding light along a 'pipe'
A laser pulse transforms into a narrow beam called a filament, which happens because the laser light increases the refractive index of the air in the centre of the beam, as if the pulse is carrying its own lens with it.
Professor Milchberg has previously shown that the filaments heat up the air as they pass through, causing it to expand and leave a ‘hole’ of low-density air in their wake.
This hole has a lower refractive index than the air around it and while the filament itself lasts for just one trillionth of a second, it takes a billion times longer for the hole to appear.
The physicists have previously showed that four filaments were fired in a square arrangement, produce holes forming the low-density wall needed for a waveguide.
The ‘pipe’ produced by the filaments lasted a few milliseconds, a million times longer than the laser pulse, which for many laser applications is ‘infinity,’ Professor Milchberg said.
Because the waveguides are relatively long-lived, he believes a single guide could be used to send out a laser can collect a signal.
‘It’s like you could just take a physical optical fibre and unreel it at the speed of light, put it next to this thing that you want to measure remotely, and then have the signal come all the way back to where you are,’ he said.
The next step is for the scientists to show that the waveguides can be used over distances of at least 164ft (50 metres).
They could then be honed to conduct chemical analyses of places like the upper atmosphere or nuclear reactors, where it’s difficult to get instruments close to what’s being studied.  
The waveguides could also be used for Lidar, a variation on radar that uses laser light instead of radio waves to make high-resolution topographic maps.

Mystery of why rechargeable batteries lose charge so rapidly revealed - and the discovery could lead to cells that last 30 YEARS

  • Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy found microscopic vulnerabilities in the structure of batteries are to blame for degradation
  • The accumulation of tiny crystals also contributes to the problem
  • Physicists studied the charge and discharge process of lithium ion batteries, which are found in many consumer devices such as phones and laptops
  • By understanding why lithium ion batteries lose their full charge over time, longer lasting versions could be developed
  • This could lead to electric car batteries enduring for over 30 years


Scientists have pinpointed exactly why rechargeable batteries, such as those used in smartphones (pictured) degrade so quickly
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Scientists have pinpointed exactly why rechargeable batteries, such as those used in smartphones (pictured) degrade so quickly
Many of us have owned a smartphone that only has charge for a few hours, or a laptop that is no longer portable thanks to an almost ‘dead’ battery.
But such frustration could become a thing of the past because scientists have pinpointed exactly why rechargeable batteries degrade so quickly, forcing consumers to replace them, or upgrade their devices.
Experts say that laptops and smartphones could have much longer-lasting lithium ion batteries in the future and electric cars could even have batteries that last for more than 30 years with a full charge.
In two separate studies published in Nature Communications, researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy have revealed why batteries lose the ability to hold their charge over time.
Despite the battery being around in its basic form for around 200 years, until now, scientists have failed to understand why they lose their full charge over time and as a consequence, have not been able to do much to resolve the problem.
But this has changed in the last decade thanks to cutting-edge technology such as new types of electron microscopes and synchrotron X-ray techniques, Smithsonian magazine reported
The physicists studied the charge and discharge process of lithium ion batteries, which are used in many devices and pointed the finger at microscopic vulnerabilities in the structure of the batteries and the accumulation of tiny crystals.
The physicists discovered that microscopic vulnerabilities steer lithium ions through the battery haphazardly, eroding it in an irregular manner and reducing its efficiency.
Experts say that laptops, smartphones could have much longer-lasting lithium-ion batteries in the future and electric cars (pictured) could even have cells that last for over 30 years with a full charge
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Experts say that laptops, smartphones could have much longer-lasting lithium-ion batteries in the future and electric cars (pictured) could even have cells that last for over 30 years with a full charge
They also noticed that deposits of nano-scale crystals that are generated by chemical reactions cause the flow of ions to become more irregular each time a battery is recharged.
Using batteries at higher voltages exacerbated such irregularities and reduced the life of the battery too. It is hoped that the findings will lead to the development of longer-lasting, smaller and more powerful batteries that could keep phones and laptops working for much longer at their full charge.
Some experts believe that the answer lies in protecting the surface of the battery or the cathode, with an incredibly thin film.
Huolin Xin, a materials scientist at the Brookhaven National Laboratory in New York, who co-authored both studies, believes that the price of batteries for electric cars will fall radically.
As scientists understand more about battery efficiency, they could create electric car batteries that last for over three decades, he said.
The physicists discovered that microscopic vulnerabilities steer lithium ions through the battery haphazardly, eroding it in an irregular manner and reducing its efficiency. The lithium ion battery of an electric car is pictured
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The physicists discovered that microscopic vulnerabilities steer lithium ions through the battery haphazardly, eroding it in an irregular manner and reducing its efficiency. The lithium ion battery of an electric car is pictured
'HOLY GRAIL' OF BATTERIES DISCOVERED: A PURE LITHIUM CELL
Scientists have at last created pure lithium batteries, which in time could last four times longer than those currently powering smartphones and other gadgets.
The ‘Holy Grail’ discovery, announced this week, could revolutionise technology from electric cars to consumer devices like MP3 players, which all demand power storage.
Currently, owners of gadgets using the lithium ion batteries face the constant frustration of having to frequently recharge devices to make sure they do not run out of battery after a matter of hours. This is because while small, the batteries are power-hungry.
But after years of research, engineers at Stanford University, California, believe they have worked out how to keep them the same size, while boosting their longevity.
To do this, they have made the battery's anode out of lithium too. Scientists have been working for years to produce an anode of pure lithium, because it would be cheap, small and be a huge boost to battery efficiency.
The engineers managed to create a lithium anode by inventing a film made from carbon nanospheres to protect the anode and stop it from cracking when it expands.
The nanospheres create a surface resembling a honeycomb to make a flexible, uniform and non-reactive film that protects the unstable lithium.
‘Of all the materials that one might use in an anode, lithium has the greatest potential. Some might call it the Holy Grail,’ said Professor Yi Cui of the university.
‘It is very lightweight and it has the highest energy density. You get more power per volume and weight, leading to lighter, smaller batteries with more power.’
‘In practical terms, if we can improve the capacity of batteries to, say, four times today's, that would be exciting.'