ECOLOGY AND ENERGY PRODUCTION

ECOLOGY AND ENERGY PRODUCTION

Thursday, June 22, 2017



Fusion energy breakthrough as researchers discover how to create control dangerous 'runaway electrons' in radical new reactors



  • Runaway electrons are extremely high energy and accelerate without warning
  • This can take place inside a fusion reactor, and even destroy solid metal walls
  • New study found their energy can be predicted to determine how it will change
  • By injecting 'heavy' ions into the reactor, they can effectively slam the brakes 




Scientists have discovered a way to slam the brakes on ‘runaway electrons,’ bringing the world a step closer toward clean energy systems that harness the power of the stars.
These so-called runaway electrons are particles of extremely high energy that can accelerate without warning inside a fusion reactor and destroy the walls of the machine.
A new study has found that it’s possible to decelerate these particles by injecting ‘heavy’ ions, in what could be a major step towards the world’s first functional fusion reactor.
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 Runaway electrons are particles of extremely high energy that can accelerate without warning inside a fusion reactor and destroy the walls of the machine, such as the solid metal walls of the British fusion reactor JET
 Runaway electrons are particles of extremely high energy that can accelerate without warning inside a fusion reactor and destroy the walls of the machine, such as the solid metal walls of the British fusion reactor JET

HOW DOES FUSION POWER WORK? 

Fusion involves placing hydrogen atoms under high heat and pressure until they fuse into helium atoms.
When deuterium and tritium nuclei - which can be found in hydrogen - fuse, they form a helium nucleus, a neutron and a lot of energy.
This is down by heating the fuel to temperatures in excess of 150 million°C, forming a hot plasma. 
Strong magnetic fields are used to keep the plasma away from the walls so that it doesn't cool down and lost it energy potential.
These are produced by superconducting coils surrounding the vessel, and by an electrical current driven through the plasma. 
For energy production. plasma has to be confined for a sufficiently long period for fusion to occur. The plasma physicists from Chalmers University of Technology found that heavy ions could be used to slow down the electrons in a reactor type known as a tokamak.
Neon or argon, for example, in the form of gas or pellets, present something for the high-energy electrons to collide with.
And, with each collision, they encounter resistance and lose speed.
According to their new model, it’s possible to predict the energy of these runaway electrons, and determine how it will change.
‘When we can effectively decelerate runaway electrons, we are one step closer to a functional fusion reactor,’ said doctoral student Linnea Hesslow.
‘Considering there are so few options for solving the world’s growing energy needs in a sustainable way, fusion energy is incredibly exciting since it takes its fuel from ordinary seawater.’
Scientists around the world have been working hard to bring a functional fusion reactor to life for the past fifty years.
But to date, there’s still no commercial fusion power plant.
The breakthrough could help to solve one of the many challenges to this type of system, which requires high pressure and extremely high temperatures of about 150 million degrees in order to get atoms to combine.
‘The interest in this work is enormous. This knowledge is needed for future large-scale experiments and provides hope when it comes to solving difficult problems,’ said Professor Tünde Fülöp.

WHAT IS A TOKAMAK? 

The tokamak is the most developed magnetic confinement system and is the basis for the design of fusion reactors.
Plasma is contained in a vacuum vessel, which is then heated by driving a current through it. 
A combination of two sets of magnetic coils creates a field in both vertical and horizontal directions, acting as a magnetic 'cage' to hold and shape the plasma.
The heating provided by the plasma current supplies a third of the 100 million°C temperature required to make fusion occur.
Take a tour of the world's largest nuclear fusion experiment
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Additional plasma heating is provided when neutral hydrogen atoms are injected at high speed into the plasma, ionized and trapped by the magnetic field. As they are slowed down, they transfer their energy to the plasma and heat it. 
High-frequency currents are also induced in the plasma by external coils.
The frequencies are chosen to match regions where the energy absorption is very high.
In this way, large amounts of power may be transferred to the plasma. ‘We expect the work to make a big impact going forward.’
Recently, there have been major steps forward in nuclear fusion research.
The ITER reactor in southern France, for example, has drawn much attention for its promise to the field.
But, such reactors have yet to produce more energy than they are supplied, among other obstacles.
The breakthrough could help to solve one of the many challenges to this type of system, which requires high pressure and extremely high temperatures of about 150 million degrees in order to get atoms to combine. The process mimics the reactions in the sun
The breakthrough could help to solve one of the many challenges to this type of system, which requires high pressure and extremely high temperatures of about 150 million degrees in order to get atoms to combine. The process mimics the reactions in the sun
The new work could help to solve the runaway electron problem, to effectively make them harmless.
‘Many believe it will work, but it’s easier to travel to Mars than it is to achieve fusion,’ said Hesslow.
‘You could say that we are trying to harvest stars here on Earth, and that can take time.
‘It takes incredible high temperatures, hotter than the center of the sun, for us to successfully achieve fusion here on Earth.
‘That’s why I hope research is given the resources needed to solve the energy issue in time.’ 


Wednesday, June 21, 2017





World Teetering on Brink of Thermonuclear War: Russian fighter jets, bombers and helicopters fire and evade missiles in spectacular 'military Olympics' tournament

  • Aviadarts competition is designed to test flight skills and precision shooting
  • It is being held this year at Pogonovo range in Voronezh region, south of Moscow
  • Aircraft must destroy land-based targets using rockets, machine guns and cannon, and overcome anti-aircraft defence
  • Nations understood to have previously taken part include Egypt, Iran, Zimbabwe, Kazakhstan and China 



Russian jet fighters, missiles racing through the sky and great plumes of smoke...
Thankfully, this is not the beginning of World War Three but, rather, an aerial tournament, known as Aviadarts.
The self-styled 'military Olympics' competition is designed to test flight skills and precision shooting and is being held this year at the Pogonovo range in the Voronezh region, south of Moscow.
During the Aviadarts Tournament, aircraft must destroy land-based targets using rockets, machine guns and cannon, and overcome anti-aircraft defence.
A Sukhoi Su-25 fighter jet performs at the Aviamix airshow, the opening event for the 2017 Aviadarts military aviation competition  in Russia
A Sukhoi Su-25 fighter jet performs at the Aviamix airshow, the opening event for the 2017 Aviadarts military aviation competition  in Russia
The competition is designed to test flight skills and precision shooting and is being held this year at the Pogonovo range in the Voronezh region, south of Moscow. Above, a Mil Mi-26N heavy lift cargo helicopter of the Berkuty [Golden Eagles] aerobatic team performs in the show
The competition is designed to test flight skills and precision shooting and is being held this year at the Pogonovo range in the Voronezh region, south of Moscow. Above, a Mil Mi-26N heavy lift cargo helicopter of the Berkuty [Golden Eagles] aerobatic team performs in the show
During the Aviadarts Tournament, aviation must destroy land-based targets using rockets, machine guns and cannon, and overcome anti-aircraft defence. Pictured, a Mil Mi-26N heavy lift cargo helicopter lands a Tigr [Tiger] multipurpose infantry mobility vehicle
During the Aviadarts Tournament, aviation must destroy land-based targets using rockets, machine guns and cannon, and overcome anti-aircraft defence. Pictured, a Mil Mi-26N heavy lift cargo helicopter lands a Tigr [Tiger] multipurpose infantry mobility vehicle
Featuring 60 crews of planes and combat helicopters, it takes place from June 14 to 27 - and these images show them performing during the Aviamix airshow, the opening event of the tournament
Featuring 60 crews of planes and combat helicopters, it takes place from June 14 to 27 - and these images show them performing during the Aviamix airshow, the opening event of the tournament
Aviadarts is one of the most spectacular competitions of the 'International Military Games', the Russian Defence Ministry said in a statement
Aviadarts is one of the most spectacular competitions of the 'International Military Games', the Russian Defence Ministry said in a statement
Featuring 60 crews of planes and combat helicopters, it takes place from June 14 to 27 - and these images show them performing during the Aviamix airshow, the opening event of the tournament.
The aircraft can be seen showing off their accuracy and aerobatics as they soar in perfect symmetry.
As well as fighter jets, other military hardware taking part include heavy-lift cargo helicopters from the Berkuty [Golden Eagles] aerobatic team and strategic bombers.

Aviadarts is one of the most spectacular competitions of the 'International Military Games', the Russian Defence Ministry said in a statement, according to Sputnik News.    
The national leg of the annual competition was first held in Russia in 2013. 
Among the other nations understood to have competed in the past at Aviadarts are Kazakhstan, China, Egypt, Iran, Venezuela, Zimbabwe, Kuwait and Mongolia.   
Servicemen in a Tiger multipurpose infantry mobility vehicle let rip some firepower during the competition
Servicemen in a Tiger multipurpose infantry mobility vehicle let rip some firepower during the competition
The aircraft can be seen showing off their accuracy and aerobatics as they soar in perfect symmetry. Pictured, Sukhoi Su-34 fighter jets release FAB-250 high explosive bombs
The aircraft can be seen showing off their accuracy and aerobatics as they soar in perfect symmetry. Pictured, Sukhoi Su-34 fighter jets release FAB-250 high explosive bombs
The national leg of the annual competition was first held in Russia in 2013. Above, a Mil Mi-26N heavy lift cargo helicopter of the Berkuty aerobatic team
The national leg of the annual competition was first held in Russia in 2013. Above, a Mil Mi-26N heavy lift cargo helicopter of the Berkuty aerobatic team
Servicemen take pictures of the air action. Among the other nations understood to have competed in the past at Aviadarts are Kazakhstan, China, Egypt, Iran, Venezuela, Zimbabwe, Kuwait and Mongolia
Servicemen take pictures of the air action. Among the other nations understood to have competed in the past at Aviadarts are Kazakhstan, China, Egypt, Iran, Venezuela, Zimbabwe, Kuwait and Mongolia
Want to see a really good acrobatic display? Britain's Red Arrows put on a show in the skies above Silverstone, Northampton
Want to see a really good acrobatic display? Britain's Red Arrows put on a show in the skies above Silverstone, Northampton




Russian fighter jet chased off a NATO aircraft after it buzzed a plane carrying defence minister Sergei Shoigu over the Baltic Sea, Russian news agencies have said.
The F-16 had tried to approach the aircraft carrying the defence minister even though it was flying over neutral waters, agencies said today, before a Russian Sukhoi-27 turned up to warn it off. 
Shoigu was reported to be en route to the Russian exclave of Kaliningrad for a meeting to discuss how well Russia's western flank was defended.
In dramatic footage appearing to show the incident unfolding, a Sukhoi-27 can be seen flying between an F-16 and another plane before tilting its wings. The F-16 then seems to fly off.    

Russian fighter 'displays its weapons' to warn off NATO jet



 
 
 
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Dramatic footage captured the moment a a Russian fighter jet (left) chased off a NATO aircraft after it buzzed a plane carrying defence minister Sergei Shoigu over the Baltic Sea
Dramatic footage captured the moment a a Russian fighter jet (left) chased off a NATO aircraft after it buzzed a plane carrying defence minister Sergei Shoigu over the Baltic Sea
In the video said to have been taken of the incident, the F-16 (pictured right) can be seen being chased off by the Sukhoi-27 (left) 
In the video said to have been taken of the incident, the F-16 (pictured right) can be seen being chased off by the Sukhoi-27 (left) 
Pictured: The F-16 coming very close to the plane containing defence minister Sergei Shoigu
Pictured: The F-16 coming very close to the plane containing defence minister Sergei Shoigu
The report comes as Sweden summoned Russia's ambassador today after a fighter jet flew unusually close to a Swedish reconnaissance plane in international airspace above the Baltic Sea, a further sign of rising military tensions in the region. 
Swedish Defence Minister Peter Hultqvist slammed Russia as 'unprofessional' and urged Moscow to avoid incidents like this again. 
During the incident involving the Russian defence minister, it was reported that the Russian jet sent to warn off the NATO fighter inserted itself between Shoigu's plane and the NATO fighter and tilted its wings from side to side to show the weapons it was carrying.
After that, agencies said the F-16 left the area.  
Pictured: A map showing the possible route the defence minister's plane could freely take over the Baltic Sea 
Pictured: A map showing the possible route the defence minister's plane could freely take over the Baltic Sea 
Recently the Baltic Sea has become an area of rising tensions between Moscow and NATO. 
The Swedish incident - which occurred on Monday - prompted a strong reaction from Sweden's government. 
The Swedish Armed Forces said in a statement that it was not unusual for Russian planes to approach and identify Swedish surveillance missions.
'This time, however, the Russian aircraft behaved in such a way that it has to be considered noteworthy, among other things the distance between the aircraft was at times very short,' it said. 
Pictured: Defence Minister Sergei Shoigu, left, with President Vladimir Putin 
Pictured: Defence Minister Sergei Shoigu, left, with President Vladimir Putin 
Earlier this month, Russia scrambled a fighter jet to intercept a nuclear-capable US B-52 strategic bomber it said was flying over the Baltic near its border, in an incident that had echoes of the Cold War.
The Kremlin referred questions about the latest incident to the defence ministry, which did not immediately comment. 
It has said in the past that all Russian flights over the Baltic are conducted in strict accordance with international law.

Sukhoi-27 

The Russian fighter jet reportedly lifted its wings to show the weapons it was carrying to the NATO fighter. Pictured: A stock image of a Sukhoi-27 jet
The Russian fighter jet reportedly lifted its wings to show the weapons it was carrying to the NATO fighter. Pictured: Stock images of a Sukhoi-27 jet, left, and an F-16, right
- Weapons: Gryazev-Shipunov GSh-301 autocannon capable of firing 1,800 high explosive or armour piercing rounds per minute and Vympel R-73 and Vympel R-27 air-to-air missiles - the latter capable of flying 80 miles at mach 4.5 to reach its target
- Hardpoints (weapons slots): 10 
- Top speed: 1,320mph 
- Country of origin: Russia 
- First built: 1982 
- Basic cost: $30m 
- Manufacturer: Sukhoi
- Number in service: 809
- Used by: Several forces, including the air forces of Russia, China, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Ukraine, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Vietnam and Angola 

F-16 
Pictured: The American-made F-16, which was first produced in 1973 
Pictured: The American-made F-16, which was first produced in 1973 
- Weapons: M61 Vulcan Gatling gun capable of firing 6,600 rounds of 20mm calibre bullets per minute, AIM-120 AMRAAM missiles capable of hitting targets up to 111 miles away and AIM-9 Sidewinder missiles capable of hitting targets 22 miles away using infrared homing 
- Hardpoints: 9 
- Top speed: 1553mph 
- Country of origin: USA 
- First built: 1973 
- Basic cost: Between $14.6 and $18.8m 
- Manufacturer: General Dynamics (now Lockheed Martin) 
- Number in service: 4,537 
- Used by: 26 forces, including the air forces of the USA, Denmark, Norway, Netherlands, Pakistan and ChileThe incident occurred a day after the Russian defence ministry said an RC-135 US reconnaissance plane had swerved dangerously in the proximity of a Russian fighter jet over the Baltic. 
The ministry said at the same time that another RC-135 had been intercepted by a Russian jet in the same area.
The Pentagon had a different version of events.
Apparently referring to the same episode, Pentagon spokesman Navy Captain Jeff Davis said the U.S. aircraft 'did nothing to provoke this behaviour.'
The Pentagon said the intercept had been unsafe and accused the Russian pilot of flying too fast and having 'poor control' over his SU-27 fighter jet

The Trump administration has committed what may turn out to be a fatal mistake, and by fatal, I mean not just to the Trump regime but to the entire globe. Trump has surrendered control of the US Military machine to the Pentagon – the President, the Secretary of Defense, all of the politicians no longer control or guide the US military, the Pentagon now holds the reins.
What is really disturbing and scary about this is that the Pentagon is, quite frankly, utterly insane; the place is riddled with fundamentalist Christians, Dominionists obsessed with fulfilling the ‘End Times’ prophecy.
No, this is not an outline for a new Dr Strangelove movie, this is absolutely real. We find a succinct description of the Dominionist mindset in an essay written by Gavin Finley MD:
It is a belief that this world can, and must, be conquered for Christ by militant action undertaken by the Christian Church.
Dominion Theology incorporates a Crusader mindset. It teaches that it is our Christian duty to take over the world, in a political sense, and if necessary, in a military sense, in order to impose Biblical rule. Christ will not return, (they say), until the church has “risen up” and “taken dominion” over all of the world’s governments and institutions.
Dominionists affirm that this is not a matter for us to discuss. As they see it, this is a direct unequivocal mandate from God. We are not to wait upon God, (they say). They say that He is waiting for US! And they are insistent, even bullying, in their demand that we follow them in their wild ride towards world dominion.
So now we have a bunch of religious maniacs who firmly believe they must conquer the world on the orders of God in control of the the largest arsenal of nuclear weapons on the planet. These same maniacs are currently pumping US troops and weapons into Syria in what appears to be a blatant attempt to start a shooting war with the Russians.
Don’t anyone make the mistake of thinking for even one second that these Christian nutjobs in the Pentagon would hesitate to launch a full out thermonuclear first strike against the Russians and anyone else who tried to stand in the way of their attempts to do what they see as God’s bidding.
We are truly closer to the brink now than we have ever been….